вторник, 31 января 2012 г.


London was an important city in Roman times, and there are substantial Roman remains, mostly below street level. By the Middle Ages, when London became the political and commercial capital of England, it was one of the most important cities in Europe.
The history of London begins about the year AD 43, when the Romans were in possession of the southern part of Britain and founded a military station on the present site of London. An insurrection of the British led by Boadicea caused it to be burned in AD 61. It was the centre of various disturbances until about 306, when Constantine constructed walls and fortifi­cations, and thereby established stability and laid a firm basis for commercial prosperity. From 369 until 412 it was the capital of Britain, when it was known as Augusta. Subsequently it became the chief seat of the Saxons. King Alfred expelled the Danes and fortified the city. It became famous as a commercial centre at the beginning of the reign of Edward III.

суббота, 28 января 2012 г.

New York

New York is the largest city in the Western hemisphere and the third largest in the world. Its population is about fourteen million (with all suburbs – 'Greater New York'). It is situated on the Atlantic coast at the mouth of the Hudson River.

From the Observation Gallery on the top of the 381-metre high Empire State Building you can see that the city is built on a number of islands with Manhattan in the centre. New York City consists of five boroughs – Manhattan, Bronx on the mainland, Brooklyn and Queens on Long Island, and Richmond on Staten Island. As Manhattan, the centre of the city, is an island, very many people either have to cross a bridge, travel through a tunnel, or take a ferry-boat to get to work.
History of New York

четверг, 26 января 2012 г.


In 1147, when Moscow began to figure in Russian history, it formed part of the principality of Suzdal’; the date of its settlement is unknown. The development of the little village into a sprawling city dates from 1295, when it became the capital of the newly established principality of Moscow. Growth was especially rapid during the first half of the 14th century, a period marked by sharp expansion of the power and wealth of the principality. In 1325 the metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox church transferred his seat to Moscow, making the city the national religious capital. It became the national political capital during the reign (1462-1505) of Grand Duke Ivan III Vasilyevich, who unified the Russian principalities. The seat of the Russian government was removed from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712.

пятница, 20 января 2012 г.


Very little is known about pre-Islamic culture in the south-east Arabian peninsula, except that many ancient towns in the area were trading centers between the Eastern and Western worlds. The remnants of an ancient mangrove swamp, dated at 7,000 years, were discovered during the construction of sewer lines near Dubai Internet City. The area had been covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coastline retreated inland, becoming a part of the city's present coastline.

Prior to Islam, the people in this region worshiped Bajir (or Bajar). The Byzantine and Sassanian empires constituted the great powers of the period, with the Sassanians controlling much of the region. After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph, of the eastern Islamic world, invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians.